Numbers in Chinese


Numbers

數字



I usually prefer to teach Vocabulary and Grammar piece by piece, picking up each new bit as it appears in the reading materials.  However, the Numbers aren’t really useful unless you know them all, and there are a few topics that I’m sure you’ll be happy to pick up as soon as possible, like working with money, asking the time, days, and dates, to name a few.  So let’s just cover all these basics as quickly as possible right now, in SIX easy lessons.

The flashcard set for all the Numbers lessons is entitled DLB Chinese Topics: Numbers, and can be found in the Flashcards Deluxe Shared Library.  You know what to do. 😉



Contents


1. Numbers, Part 1

2. Money

3. Days & Dates

4. Time

5. Math

6. Comparisons



一二三四五
六七八九十


ㄧ   ㄦˋ   ㄙㄢ   ㄙˋ   ㄨˇ   ㄌㄧㄡˋ  ㄑㄧ  ㄅㄚ  ㄐㄧㄡˇ  ㄕˊ


1. Numbers 1 – 10

Here are the numbers one through ten.  Now that you know them, you should be able to count to ten by yourself, right?  Do it now!



2. Numbers 11 – 99

Counting in Chinese is very logical.  Eleven, twelve, and thirteen are just 十一, 十二, 十三 (ten-one, ten-two, ten-three).  Twenty, twenty-one, and twenty-two are 二十, 二十一, 二十二 (two-ten, two-ten-one, two-ten-two).  This pattern continues all the way up to 99.  Try counting to 99 now!




ㄌㄧㄤˇ


3. Counting things

Now you can count numbers, but what about counting things?  To count in Chinese, you need two things: counter words, and 兩 (the alternate #2).

In English we sometimes use “counter words” for things that are otherwise grammatically “uncountable”.


One sheet of paper.

One cup of water.


In Chinese, almost everything has a counter.


one (counter for cups of X) water

一杯水

one cup of water


杯子
three (general counter) cup

三個杯子

three cups


Counters are also known as “measure words”, or “classifiers”.  The most common classifier is 個.  Sometimes 個 is used even when other counter words are also appropriate.  Although it won’t be grammatically perfect, Chinese speakers won’t mind if you use 個 to count everything while you are still a beginner.


four (polite counter for people) cup

四位人

four people


four (general counter) person

四個人

four people


Some other useful counters are 次 and 下, which are used for counting actions.


again one time

再一次。

One more time.


he knock -ed three times

他敲了三下。

He knocked three times.


In context, the object being counted is often omitted, so it may feel sometimes like there is no counter.  Also, a very small number of words in Chinese do not require a counter, because they are counters themselves.


four (polite counter for people)

四位

four people

* 人 (person) is omitted


seven days

七天

seven days

* 天 does not require a counter


We’re almost ready to start counting things in Chinese!  But, before we go on, we need to learn an alternate way of saying the number 2.


(ㄌㄧㄤˇ) ~ 2 (alternate)


This version of two is used for counting objects, people, and big numbers like hundreds, thousands, etc.  Below 100, it will ONLY be used for the number 2; not for 12, 20, 22, etc.


one two three

一,二,三。

One, two, three!


one bottle (counter) two (alternate) bottle (counter) three bottle (counter)

一乒,兩乒,三乒。

One bottle, two bottles, three bottles.


這個 酒吧 女人 二十二 男人
this bar has two (counter) women twenty-two (counter) men

這個酒吧有兩個女人,二十二個男人。

This bar has 2 girls and 22 boys.


Now you have everything you need to start counting stuff in Chinese!  Try counting to 99 again, but this time while adding 個 to the end of each number.  Don’t forget to use 兩 instead of 二, but only once!




ㄐㄧˇ


4. Asking how many

To ask how many of something there is, just replace the number with 幾.


how many? (counter) person one (counter) person

幾個人? 一個人。

How many people?  One person.


孩子 孩子
you have how many? (counter) children I have three (counter) children

你有幾個孩子? 我有三個孩子。

How many children do you have?  I have three children.



百  零


ㄅㄞˇ  ㄌㄧㄥˊ


5. Numbers 100 – 109

To count above 99, we need two more characters.  The first is of course, “hundred”.


(ㄅㄞˇ) ~ 100


The rules for 百 are a little different than they are for 十.  Just as in English, 百 (hundred), must be preceeded by an 一 (one).


one hundred

一百。

One hundred.


Remember 兩?  Two hundred is usually counted with a 兩 instead of an 二, although technically both are okay.


two hundred two ten two

兩百二十二。

Two hundred twenty-two. / 222.


For numbers 101-109, we will need the character for “zero”.


(ㄌㄧㄥˊ) ~ 0


Can you guess how to say 101?”.


one hundred zero one

一百零一。

One hundred and one. / 101.


And so on from 101 to 109.  The reason we need the zero in there is so we don’t confuse 101 with 110, as you will see in a moment.  Try counting from 90 to 109 now!



6. Numbers 110 – 999

Counting above 109 is completely logical, based on what you already know.


one hundred one ten

一百一十。

One hundred and ten. / 110.


four hundred two ten

四百二十。

Four hundred twenty. / 420.


nine hundred nine ten nine

九百九十九。

Nine hundred ninety-nine. / 999.


Notice how 十 can appear by itself in numbers 10-19, but must be preceeded by 一 in larger numbers.


ten one hundred one ten

十,一百一十。

Ten, one hundred and ten. / 10, 110.


If there is a zero in the one’s place, you can omit the 十.


one hundred one

一百一。

One hundred and ten. / 110.


four hundred two

四百二。

Four hundred twenty. / 420.


two hundred five

兩百五。

Two hundred fifty. / 250.


This is why you need 零 for 101-109, 201-209, etc.;  If you just say 一百一, people will think you mean 一百一十.




ㄑㄧㄢ


7. Numbers 1000 – 9999

(ㄑㄧㄢ) ~ 1000


The rules for using the character 千 (thousand) are the same as for 百, with one addition; if you see two zeros in the middle (1001-1009, 2001-2009, etc), only say 零 once.  As you can guess, the numbers with zeros in them will be the trickiest to get the hang of.


1000 一千
1100 一千一百
1010 一千零一十 *
1001 一千零一
1011 一千零一十一
1101 一千一百零一
1110 一千一百一十 OR 一千一百一 **
1111 一千一百一十一


* For 1010, don’t say “一千零一” (dropping the 十), even though you may hear others doing it.  It creates confusion because “一千零一” literally means 1001.

** In this case, it’s again okay to drop the 十, because there is no 零 to confuse things.



萬  億  兆


ㄨㄢˋ  ㄧˋ  ㄓㄠˋ


8. Numbers 1,0000 – 9999,9999,9999,9999

Notice the commas?  In China, the big numbers have a comma after every four digits; not three like western countries do.  That’s because unlike English, Chinese has a word for ten thousand.


(ㄨㄢˋ) ~ 1,0000 (ten thousand)


And just as English has a word for a thousand thousands (one million), a thousand millions (one billion), and a thousand billions (one trillion), Chinese has words for each factor of 萬.


(ㄧˋ) ~ 1,0000,0000 (one hundred million)

(ㄓㄠˋ) ~ 1,0000,0000,0000 (one trillion)


Just like English, start by reading the entire group of numbers to the left of the first comma.  Then when you hit the comma, say the appropriate large number, then read the next group of numbers, then the next comma, and so on.


English

123,456,789,012,345.

One hundred twenty-three trillion, four hundred fifty-six billion, seven hundred eighty-nine million, twelve thousand, three hundred forty-five.


Chinese

123,4567,8901,2345.

一百二十三,四千五百六十七,八千九百零一,兩千三百四十五。


Instead of counting digits in your head, it may be easier to just remember the more common large numbers as individual vocabulary words.


10,000 一萬
100,000 十萬
1,000,000 一百萬
10,000,000 一千萬
100,000,000 一億
1,000,000,000 十億



Now you can count from zero all the up to the trillions.  And you can properly count objects too!  You are sooooo smart!

Once you’ve had the chance to review your flashcards, and take a short break (or a long one), we can start tackling fractions, decimals, dates and more!



Next: Money!